The shape of past climate provides a warning: everything can change quickly

Sawtooth wave
Willi Dansgaard (photo: Niels Bohr Institute). It is no longer considered best practice to smoke a pipe while handling an ice core.
Climate records showing a similar sawtooth wave pattern at different timescales, with warming as the abrupt near-90 degree slope, and cooling as the descending ramp (oxygen isotopes are a proxy for temperature). The upper plot shows longer glacial-interglacial cycles on the order of ~100,000 years, as recorded in ocean sediments, whereas the bottom plot shows the rapid Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles that occur on timescales of a few thousand years, recorded in a Greenland ice core.
Large stained glass panels such as the rose window in Notre Dame were facilitated by the structural support of flying buttresses
Dutch canals during the Little Ice Age. ‘On the ice’ by Hendrick Avercamp, circa 1610.

Paleoceanographer and climate scientist, pattern seeker, (micro)fossil hunter.

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